On their native land, orchids used to be in long dry time forcing themselves to stop their growth for some time. Meanwhile, they get moisture and nutrition from their ‘false bulbs’ and leaves. When rains come bulbs renew their water resourses and tiller out new stalks and leaves. Thus the growth is renewing.
Orchids of those places where they must stop their growth due to climate conditions, have such rest periods in greenhouses usually in winter.
Most orchids can be cultivated with other nursery crops. However, those who breed huge collections, should have three special places with different temperatures:
Cool place with day temperature +10°C,
Warm-temperate place with day temperature +16°C,
Greenhouse with temperature + 19°C.
When night or cold weather, these temperatures can be lowered and risen when it is sunny at day time. In summer in cold orchard-house it is necessary to keep low temperatures by special shades or other things. In cultivated place it is necessary to keep air humidity by spraying paths, walls and stalls. In cold houses orchids of cool mountain origin are cultivated. It is, for instance, Odontoglossum crispum.
In temperate warm houses most tropical orchids are cultivated, and finally, in hot greenhouses with low humidity the most heat-loving orchids are cultivated, primarily tall-stalked.
For growing a crop, producers constantly bring new tropical types from their native land. They plant orchids in pots after arriving. Then the orchid should be reseated when the pot is too small for it or when soil ‘sours’ or when the roots are damaged. The best time for reseating is when there are some first shoots. In spring when new shoots appear and roots revive, the top substrate is reseated. As a substrate ferny roots, peat dust or fibrous humus are used. They are mixed in different ratio. River or clean sand can be added, also some pieces of bricks, crocks or charcoal pieces. It should be noted that all of this should be absolutely clean. For orchid substrate such fern roots are used: Polypodium vulgare, Pteris aquilina, Osmunda regalis.
It depends on the local area when it comes to the choice of fern. Fern roots and moss are firstly crushed. Bigger pieces are used for Cattleya and smaller parts (moss and moss fern) are used for mixes of other orchids with thinner roots, such as Odontoglossum.
Not all the time producers can have necessary fibrous soil, then it is replaced by semi-rotten woody leaves and good loamy soil.
Such soil mixture can be applied for all types of orchids. Sometimes to economize producers use tiny peat lumps when they transplant big orchids like Cymbidium, Coelogyne, Stanhopea and others.
For mass cutting such types as Cattleya, Laelia, Odontoglossum, Cypripedium common pots are used. Flat pots with side holes or without are used for wide-growing types. Wooden baskets are used for those orchids that have blooms or clusters from below the soil and those which air seeking roots do not like thick substrate.
Some orchids are hanged to wooden chocks; fern stems or thick wooden bark. This method is best for epiphytic orchids in low humid rooms. Here some loamy tray supports filled with water are used. Especially when we speak about Odontoglossum. Moreover, this prevents pest to enter. Healthy and well-rooted orchids that need to be seated, are transplanted in such way that the pot would not prevent development of new bulbs. Old bulbs without leaves may be partially taken away or used for breeding. Healthy roots are watched not to be damaged, sick ones are cut. Plants with damaged roots hardly survive. It is better to seat such plants into smaller pots with clean peat moss.