Pathogen: tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus.
The virus affects more than 350 plants. Throughout the world, the loss of tomato yield due to tobacco mosaic is up to 20%.
Promotes the manifestation of the disease, insufficient lighting, temperature changes.
Symptoms of tobacco mosaic may differ depending on type, variety and age of the plant, strain or strains (if several viruses are present simultaneously) of the pathogen and environmental conditions. Symptoms of the disease can be: patches or mosaic yellow, necrosis and deformation of leaves and other plant organs.
Joint infection of tobacco mosaic virus and other viruses causes a complex stripe and the appearance of brown-brown strokes, broad and narrow necrotic bands on the above-ground parts of plants. The infected plant lags in development. The volume and quality of the crop decreases.
This is one of the most easily propagating phytoviruses. The agent is transmitted with plant juice when nursing or with the help of sucking insects (aphids). The virus remains: on tools, tools, in plant residues, seeds or soil, without losing pathogenicity for more than 2 years. The pathogen is resistant to high temperatures (withstands 95 °C) and is dried.
It is important to prevent the development of the disease in the crop by taking preventive measures: disinfect tools with bleach, monitor and remove sick plants on time, carefully remove the plant remains from infected plants so as not to spread the infection.
Seeds of tomatoes before planting are incubated at a temperature of 70 °C for 2-4 days.
There is a small amount of derived or genetically modified varieties of tomato resistant to this disease.
Also, the "cross-protection" method is used when plants are planted with a mild strain of the virus, which makes it more resistant to other varieties of the virus.