The control of tomato moth includes the same methods as the control of other pests of protected ground. Unfortunately, there is no single method of control tuta, the use of which could give a 100% result. For a positive result, a combination of all existing methods of combating this pest is required. To overcome Tuta Absoluta and save the maximum amount of crop, while spending as little money as possible, you need to take the right steps at the right time.
First of all, it is necessary to apply agrotechnical methods and to observe sanitary norms when growing tomatoes, especially on soils. It is very important that there are no weeds, especially from the family of pastilles, on which the mole develops. In the greenhouse there should be mesh on the frogs. These measures will help reduce the amount of pests that can enter the greenhouse. If we talk about sanitation, then it is necessary to finish the previous season correctly, if there was Tuta. You also need to make the treatments right before the new season. It is necessary to monitor the seedlings so that it is not damaged in the seedling set (nursery). To do this, you need to inspect the plants and use monitoring traps. If a pest is detected in the seedling compartment, it is necessary to carry out the treatment there so as not to tolerate the mole in the greenhouse. In order to prevent the development of any pest, you need to take care of two things: 1) to train the personnel so that he knows how to look like a pest, for what to look for him and be ready to find him; 2) Monitor with pheromone traps.
In the greenhouse, the first adult appears. How do we know if this wrecker is in our greenhouse or not? First, on the characteristic traces of the leaves. It is advisable for the greenhouses that collect the fruits to know what damage the Tuta Absoluta looks like and, as far as possible, look for them and report to the agronomists on plant protection in case of discovery. In addition, it is necessary to use pheromone traps to catch individuals who have already fallen into the greenhouse. Pheromone traps allow you to determine the beginning of a pest in a greenhouse. Monitoring traps in the greenhouse should be one week before planting in it. If we are talking about water traps for monitoring, then it's enough to use 10 pieces per 1 ha. Arrange such traps around the circle, so that the distance between them is not less than 15 meters, and between them and the walls of the greenhouse - 25 meters, so as not to attract new butterflies from the outside. It is important to remember to add a dispersant (for example, soap) or oil in a trapped water. As the surface tension of the water is high enough, and the butterfly, flying to the water, is capable of pushing against it. Soap or oil, reducing the surface tension of the water, helps to make the butterfly unable to push away from the water and drowns. Pheromone in traps needs to be changed at least once every 4 weeks in a hot period and every 5-6 weeks at low temperatures, if it has a great influence on the budget. However, the recommended period of its validity is still 4 weeks and it is necessary to remember about it.
The activity of adult individuals: both mating and laying eggs; Occurs at dusk and at night. With the rising of the sun, the imago hides from the light either on the plants in the old, dry leaves or in the ground, so the black glue traps began to be used against the tomato minisurious moths. I have not seen the use of sticky black ribbons and I cannot say to what extent they are effective. I have seen the use of black glue traps that are placed on the ground, and not a small number of adult pest animals are caught on them. I doubt the effectiveness of sharing pheromones and black adhesive traps together, as black traps should cope with the pest when its activity is reduced and the search for a mating partner is stopped.
Light traps are often used against Chestnut pests, and tomato mining mole also flies on them. When using predatory mites, light traps cannot be used, at least in the first period of settlement, because these entomophages are also attracted to them and perish. For this reason, I advise you to use light traps precisely in the technological zone, where the Tuta fly also exists if it was found in the greenhouse. Through the technical area, leaflets and fruit infested by the pest can be transported, butterflies can also fly from the outside, so it is necessary and there to fight them. In the technical zone, the use of light traps is most expedient and more convenient, compared with water traps. Light traps promote the capture of both males and females. There are traps in the market that combine light and pheromone, but I did not see their use. The literature says that they are effective. I do not have data comparing the effectiveness of using light traps separately from pheromone or jointly. Do light traps affect the action of pheromone when trapping males? I guess that does not interfere.
Black glue traps and light emitters catch both males and females. In the case of pheromone traps, only males are harvested, since they use the pheromone of females. If males are attracted and caught with pheromone traps, the females will not be fertilized and larvae will not appear from the deferred eggs. Pheromone traps are: water, deltoid and combining light and pheromone in themselves. Deltoid traps are of different colors, yellow and red are considered to be more effective.
Water pheromone traps are placed in the greenhouse on a level with the ground, saturating the air at the bottom of the plants with pheromone to attract males there and prevent them from meeting with females, which are usually located on the upper part of the plants. It is precisely the concentration of pheromone in the air that directs the male to one side or the other. The farther he is from the female, the weaker he feels the pheromone. The closer he will fly to her, the more he will feel. If the male turns to the other side, the concentration of pheromone there will be lower, and he will know that it is not flying there. Therefore, we want the high concentration of pheromone not to be where females are. Butterflies postpone eggs usually on the upper part of the plant, on the young leaves, so the trap baskets are used in the lower tier.
Water pheromone traps are used not only for monitoring but also for mass catching. In this case, they are put in the amount of 25 pieces per hectare on the same principle as in monitoring, that is: at least 15 meters apart and at least 25 meters from each trap to the wall of the greenhouse. The calculation takes into account the amount of pheromone and its concentration in the air. At distances of more than 20 meters to the walls and the number of traps no more than 25 pieces per hectare of pheromone will not attract Tutu Absolute to the greenhouse from the outside.
According to Vita Halaly, an agronomist consultant, BioBee (Israel) bio-protection technology engineer.
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