The transfer of orchids usually occurs in most of them during spring time. Some orchids in a cold greenhouse, like the Odontoglossum, are expediently transplanted in the autumn, and the vandas are in February. The transplant itself in orchids is carried out in the following way. First, in a new utensil, if necessary, lay - for a drainage and drainage - a layer of shards covered with a layer of sphagnum, and then lay, leveling, a layer of substrate. After this, the plant with a root coma is planted in a substrate and is applied to it from all sides, making some elevation to the center. The roots of orchids, especially epiphytic, are very airy, in the sense of this, when transplanted, the root com is not too densely sealed, and pieces of charcoal and particle of fern roots are added to the substrate.
Pollination of orchids requires special attention. One or another aspect ratio of plant growth indicates a known need for water or in a rest without watering or in its reduction. Therefore, in order to master the decline, it is quite proper to water the orchids, we need a certain observation and a skill. With regard to watering requirements, all orchids can be subdivided into three groups:
1) Orchids that do not have large tubers, such as Paphiopedilum, Bollea, Pescatorium, etc., and whose growth is not suspended, are subject to continuous, consistently identical watering.
2) Orchids with clearly pronounced tubers like Cattleya, Laelia, some dendrobiums and epiddrums; They have a period of rest after a known period of growth. In most cases, here the period of growth begins in February and ends in autumn, but in different orchids, this period is different in duration. At the beginning of the growth, the watering is given to a minimum, then, as the growth progresses, it gradually increases and reaches a maximum, after which, again, correspondingly, the strength of growth gradually decreases; When the growth stops, it is watered only in such a size that the plants do not wrinkle the tubers and do not suffer roots.
3) In a separate group, genera with a period of vigorous growth can be included, and then they require a long, strictly defined period of complete drying. These include leaf-giving genera Calanthe and Thunia, which, moreover, require an annual transplant.
During growth, orchids need increased heat and humidity of the air. At the same time, they need an air of moderate humidity and a certain decrease in heat. In the case of small comparative sizes of the cultivating room, with the maintenance of a variety of genera and species together, the requirement of all individual species can sometimes be quite difficult.
Freshly transplanted orchids are watered very moderately over the course of several weeks, increasing watering with the formation of new roots. The water used for irrigation and spraying should have the temperature of the room in which the orchids are located. In orchid culture, ventilation is essential. Proper and skillful application of shadowing is also very important for the success of crop. Orchids with soft leaves, without tubers, require more shade than orchids with thick and strong tubers. The orchids of the latter category are given when they could suffer from a strong sunrise. In the kettle, dendrobium, coleus and other orchids, the moderate sun of late summer and autumn contributes to the development and development of flower buds. Odontoglossum and massive cold greenhouses from spring to autumn require shading already in the mild sun, and with strong sun of midday hours - strong shading.
The question of fertilizing orchids is still controversial, but it is still recognized that it is expedient to apply fertilizer only to highly-growing orchids, such as Cymbidium Lowianum, Coelogyne Massangeana, Stanhopea, Sobralia, etc. It is also possible to fertilize with the use of land that requires an annual orchid transplant, as Tuna and leaf rolls. For fertilization a very large amount of corn diluted with water is taken. Precautionary care is required with orchid fertilization, and for the success of the case there is definitely a preliminary experience.
It should be noted that many specialists and originators successfully worked on hybridization of orchids. Crossing orchids requires a great deal of familiarity with these plants, although the very process of artificial insemination does not pose any difficulty. In the sense of obtaining hybrids in orchids, much has been done in England, where not only many interspecific hybrids, but also valuable intergeneric hybrids were obtained.
In most cases, the pollen flower of orchids begins to decay after fertilization. The time of maturation of the ovaries seeds in different orchids is very different. So, for the ripening of the seeds of the ovary from Calanthe vestita, Stenoglottis fimbriata takes about 4 months, whereas it takes more than a year for the ripening of the seeds in the Cattleya and the Paphiopedilum, and it is more than 2 years. The maturity of the seeds is recognized by opening on one side of the fetus. When maturation of the seeds, the fennel is better to cover or tie with silk paper to prevent the rash of seeds. The similarity of the seeds of many orchids can be learned by examining the seeds in a strong magnifying glass. If there is some thickening in the middle of the seed, it is a sign of the seed - germinating, and such seeds can be sown at once. However, mature seeds in winter should be stored until the spring dry in a not too warm place and sown in spring.
Sowing the seeds of orchids is done in different ways. When planting epiphytic orchids, the following method is recommended. Take some amount of sphagnum and wrap it in gauze or in a non-solid, having small openings, like a sieve, fabric. Then, wrapped in this way, the lump of sphagnum is placed in the seed box so that it forms a slightly convex surface, covered below the edges of the plate, with a cloth. On the last seed is as evenly as possible, after which the plate is covered with glass and put into heat. Moisturization of seeds is carried out by water from below. Seed germination occurs relatively soon, but sometimes, it happens, germination has to wait about a year. Seeds, germinating, first turn into small green balls, which release thin hairy roots, after which the first leaf is formed. The first picking of seedlings requires caution and attention. The digging is carried out into sifted and cooked peat earth whose surface in a filled plate is given a slightly convex form from above, and sowing and digging dishes are monitored to prevent the appearance of pests.
At the second picking, as a substrate, peat and fern fiber are taken, which are initially milled and thoroughly mixed. In the dish in which the second picking was done, the seedlings remain until the formation of the third or fourth sheet, and then sit down on small pots. Further care for seedlings is the same as for adult plants. Seedlings of epiphytic orchids with thick tubers in the early years should not be given a rest period, for which the seedlings should all the time be in a very warm room with moist air.
The time interval between the time of seedlings and the moment of its first flowering in different orchids is very different. Generally, seedlings of orchids bloom only after a long time - the first flowering has to wait sometimes not months, but years.
The orchid seed does not contain any nutrients at all. Seedling germination and initial development of seedlings are closely related to the coexistence of microscopic fungi living in tissues of orchid roots. In other words, there is a symbiosis between the root microscopic mushrooms and the plant. In 1903, the French mycologist Noel Bernard first received pure orchid fungi in pure culture and, thanks to them, received orchid seedlings. Thanks to the works of Bernard and Berger, it was possible to reproduce orchids by sowing using the positive effect of root fungi. Reproduction of orchids with seeds using root cultures is extremely difficult, requires specialist knowledge and is more likely to be available to the laboratory worker, but not to the usual gardener-practice.
The reproduction of many orchids is most often produced by an inhospitable way - by planting. Particularly good for such breeding are orphids, Paphiopedilum, Coelogyne, as well as lilies, Cattleya, Epidendrum, and other similar to the nature of the growth of orchid.
Odontoglossum, maxillary, and many other species, when transplanted, are taken more or less easily separable ingrown parts, separated from the transfer, the old tubers are planted in squash with sphagnum. Typically, it takes several years until the plants reproduced in this way blossom. Due to this, at inexpensive varieties of orchids such reproduction is not economically feasible. Particularly successful in multiplying by the division of the tuna, which, when planting the segments of the stem to the moist sphagnum substrate, sprouts each of them. Oncidium and Phalaenopsis often develop good germs from the eyes, which are with long flower stems.
All these different formations can serve to propagate. The plants belonging to the orchid family of vanilla propagate parts of the stem. In monopodial orchids, sometimes multiplication occurs by cutting the upper part of the stem on which the roots have developed, with the lowered tip of the stem in the lower part usually develops a servant to continue the growth of the new trunk. This last method is applicable to specimens of Vanda teres, Vanda tricolor, Aerides Vandarum, Aerides cylindricum.
Cultivated under glass orchids are often subjected to pest attack. It should be emphasized that where, with proper care in the cultivating premises, sufficient ventilation of the air is carried out and the necessary humidity is maintained, there the attack of pests is observed less frequently. Pests of orchids include thrips, green, black aphids, slugs, wood lice, some beetles, polypodium flies, butterflies and ants.